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Railway concrete sleepers—Since PWA may increase the impact resistance and ductility of concrete, its incorporation could improve the durability of these elements. 16.9A), which can be considered as ONC. Plotted based on the data reported by Mohamed, A.M., 2016. This process aims to make the density of concrete closer to that of the CC. In the USA, for example, it is necessary to demonstrate a ‘destruction and removal efficiency’ of 99.99 per cent for one or more of the organic constituents which are more difficult to destroy, and in the case of dioxins the required efficiency is 99.9999 per cent. However, the additional gas volume produced as a result of combustion can lead to a lower unit output. This section focuses on the performance of lightweight concrete mixes incorporating MIBA as an aggregate component. Fig. The reason is the ultrafine size of the nanomaterials and their high surface area (Reches, 2018). Science Makes Strong Concrete Cement is what makes strong concrete, but making cement is like a trip to chemistry class. Table 8.6. Kumari et al. Lastly, some recommendation and valuable ideas for similar studies in future are presented. Concrete production is a highly intensive energy-consuming process and presently facing a number of challenges in reducing the carbon footprint and making it more economic. Such recycling is economically viable (through reduced disposal costs and savings on the purchase of natural aggregate). 17.5) (Monkman and Shao, 2006). Coarse agg. This was attributed to the smoothness of the MIBA pellets. Annually, at a European cement plant, the power consumption and the required thermal energy were, on average, 117 kW h/t of cement and 3.75 MJ/t of clinker, respectively (WBCSD/CSI, 2013). Stocks-Fischer et al. (2015) reported the healing of early age cracks in cement-based materials by CA-producing bacteria Bacillus mucilaginous L3. (2013). A solution (cement type) that seems better at production (lower environmental impact) cannot be so effective when used at concrete scale or event at building scale. The concrete (or specifically, the cement in it) needs moisture to hydrate and cure (harden). It was found that the concrete consistence (slump test) increased greatly when using MIBA aggregates that had been pelletised and sintered and even outperformed mixes with fly ash and Lytag (Wainwright and Boni, 1983; Wainwright and Cresswell, 2001). In this case, the properties of concrete could be used advantageously in order to produce a zero-impact building. However, most research studies on the matter point towards a significant decline in performance with increasing inclusion of PWA. Ravindra K. Dhir OBE, ... Rui V. Silva, in Sustainable Construction Materials, 2018. Thus, it increases the energy required for concrete vibration during construction (Phase III). However, concrete made with RCA from repeated recycling exhibited a higher rate of strength development and, after 120 days, the RAC made with the third-generation RCA showed a compressive strength just 12% lower than that of the control concrete. Analyses of fuels and ash are given in Tables 2.29 and 2.30. Moreover, the rate of building construction and demolition waste to landfill is continually increasing which results in environmental impact (Padmini et al., 2009; Safiuddin et al., 2011). 5.9 shows examples of an SCM design chart designed to achieve the targeted CO2 reduction rate in OPC-based concrete production. The results of both laboratory and full-scale production of a range of magnesia-based products are discussed in terms of the variable considered. Materials Science and Novel Concrete Products P. Acker Dr. Paul Acker, Lafarge Direction R&D 61, rue des Belles-Feuilles F-75116 Paris Abstract Progress over the last twenty years in the field of admixtures, new formulation methods and the use of fillers and ultra fines have led to spectacular developments in concrete technology. They are most commonly used in philosophy and semantics.Abstract objects are sometimes called abstracta (sing.abstractum) and concrete objects are sometimes called concreta (sing. A new CO2 sequestration process via concrete products production. In addition, clay can be referred to as hydrous aluminum phyllosilicate with various amounts of other mineral materials such as iron, magnesium, and alkali metals. It can Hence, using Eqs. Thereby, possible technologies should be developed to address these problems. Concrete is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens (cures) over time. Carbon dioxide sequestration on composites based on waste wood, Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Cementitious Construction Materials, The drying shrinkage is a common issue of, Carbon dioxide sequestration on masonry blocks, Various cementitious materials can be used to prepare, Management, Recycling and Reuse of Waste Composites, Portland Cement: Classification and Manufacture, Lea's Chemistry of Cement and Concrete (Fourth Edition), Ravindra K. Dhir OBE, ... Chao Qun Lye, in, In light of increasing, albeit rare, use of RA in the production of new. fully replaced with synthetic aggregate (85% MIBA, 15% clay blend, pelletised and fired). CT-5 was admixed in the mixture of cement and sand along with nutrient medium and urea-CaCl2 while casting. and Bacillus subtilis by brushing. Some preliminary figures have been reported by Concrete Centre (2011), as shown in Table 15.6. Concrete. Having built decorative and traditional concrete from Boston to Boulder and Nevada to Nova Scotia, our nationally recognized team has the knowledge and experience to deliver outstanding concrete installations on time, on location, and on budget. The claims of low flame emissivity may not be such a problem in cement kilns as has been suggested, due to the amount of dust normally found in the burning zone of large modern kilns and the availability of suitably designed burner systems. Aggregates only account for 17%–25% of the embodied energy of concrete (O’Brien et al., 2009). In regard to concrete structures, it has been shown that, Waste and Supplementary Cementitious Materials in Concrete, LCA of concrete with construction and demolition waste, Advances in Construction and Demolition Waste Recycling, Equations for prediction of rubberized concrete compressive strength: a literature review, Marijana Hadzima-Nyarko, Ivana Miličević, in, Requirements for the use of recycled materials in, Effect of Supplementary Cementitious Materials on Reduction of CO2 Emissions From Concrete, Functional nanomaterials and their applications toward smart and green buildings, Sand slurry column fed by gravity with urea-CaCl, Bacterial solution was sprayed till 6 days (twice a day) on the upper surface of sample, Drilling resistance analysis, TGA, XRD, SEM, MIP, TEM, and colorimetric analysis, Specimens were immersed in bacterial culture for 1 day prior to submersion in nutrient medium for 6 days, Compressive strength, sorptivity test, SEM, gas permeability, XRD, chromatic analysis of specimens, Mortar mixture was admixed with NBU medium-bacterial cells and cured with respective medium for 28 days, Compressive strength, water absorption test, and SEM analysis, Specimen's top surface was wetted with nutrient medium containing, Water absorption test, SEM-EDX and XRD analysis, Bacterial admixed specimens were cured by spraying with respective medium for 28 days, Water absorption test, SEM-EDX, XRD, MIP, and CaCO, Vegetative cells with UYE medium were added in mortar mixture while casting and cured by submersion in UYE medium with lime till 56 days, Hydration kinetics, compressive strength, TGA, and XRD analysis, Immersed in solution of urea and calcium source for 3 days, Crack width of 0.3 mm and depths of 10.0 and 20.0 mm, Crack width of 3.0 mm and depths of 13.4, 18.8, and 27.2 mm, Immersed in urea and demineralized water for 4 weeks. Blocks of cement and sand were cured by spraying treatment with NBU medium and bacterial strain Bacillus megaterium SS3 for 28 days. In this chapter, the design, performance and applications of carbonated reactive magnesia in different compositions and scenarios are presented and discussed. Drying shrinkage would easily occur at such high content of cement. Effect of 2 per cent ash absorption on composition, In the example given in Table 2.31 the free lime levels in the two cases are similar. Pavement blocks, kerbs, and flags—These precast concrete elements, apart from their lower weight and thus decreased transportation costs, would present enhanced resistance to wear. Precast concrete has several benefits in the repair of damaged concrete structures: ease of construction, rapid construction, high quality, durability, and economy. According to the literature review, the presence of rubber as an aggregate in concretes decreases the compressive strength. NCL has attracted attention for use in concrete products. Matched with tensile strengths, 28 static elastic modulus fluctuated above and below the control with increasing MIBA content. The elastic modulus results for lightweight concrete mixes containing sintered MIBA were lower than those for their natural aggregate counterparts (Wainwright and Boni, 1983). The process requires large amounts of materials that significantly contribute to the global warming and environmental impacts. Kalhori and Bagherpour (2017) reported 30% increase in the compressive strength of bacteria-exposed shotcrete specimens compared to control specimens. HBRC Journal 12(2), 212–225. factory-made) concrete products (such as beams, blocks and tiles) increasingly crush and recycle their own production waste (such as broken or damaged blocks or pre-cast concrete beams) back into their products. fired at 800°C or 900°C, leading to concrete strengths less than control. Therefore, the cost of materials is a major concern and the affordable price of clay-based nanomaterials is one of its imperative advantages, which encourages contractors to use them. MSW bottom ash had no adverse effect on the durability of concrete in studies in which all the reactions due to metallic aluminum (or zinc) were avoided (Siddique, 2010b). Reinforced concrete slabs are usually lightly reinforced because the span/depth ratios are normally governed by requirements of adequate stiffness to avoid excessive deflections. The possibilities of using MSWI ashes regarding the recycling, cleaning, recovery, and engineering applications were analyzed. When sand was totally replaced with crumb rubber, the reduction in concrete strength was about 80%. With this in mind, worldwide research has mainly focused on the use of these sorts of materials as NA replacement in concrete, and the results have shown that RAs are suitable to replace their natural counterparts, even though some compromises must be made, as the concrete performance tends to decrease as the replacement ratio increases (Rao et al., 2007; Li, 2008; McNeil and Kang, 2013; Behera et al., 2014; Evangelista and de Brito, 2014). 20. As concrete production keeps on increasing worldwide, so does the use and consumption of abiotic resources, such as aggregates. Figure 5.9. Concrete pipe, boxes, and manholes are durable and resist rust and fire. Inspect all materials used in the construction of concrete … Figure 17.4. The LCA consists of a useful tool to evaluate the benefits of the GHG emissions and energy balance. The level of replacement of more conventional fuels is normally not more than 40 per cent. These concretes now constitute a highly sophisticated family of materials. Cracks that had been treated with the bacteria showed higher freeze/thaw resistance of concrete than the untreated concrete. (2010) investigated the crack healing by immobilizing the bacterial cells of B. sphaericus strain LMG 22257 in silica gel. Tittelboom et al. Nevertheless, it is really complex to determine the CCF. Thus, in buildings, it is used almost from foundation to topmost storey. Such properties are associated with the mix design, high content of fine aggregates and incorporation of chemical admixtures (Su et al., 2001; Tuyan et al., 2014). As a result, 3% NCL can be considered as an optimum percentage. The potential of calcifying bacteria to enhance durability of energy-efficient green building materials was reported by Dhami et al. Successful healing of deepest crack of depth 27.2 mm was reported in microbially treated specimen with bacterial strain Bacillus sp. It was developed by Dutch researcher and microbiologist Hendrik Jonkers using an extra ingredient acting as a healing agent and requires no human intervention to be repaired once placed. V.I Limit Design of Slabs. MIBA used to replace 25%, 50% and 100% of Lytag aggregates in lightweight concrete. The ecological footprint is commonly defined as the area of productive land and sea needed to create the product and then make it disappear. This could have the effect of lowering the 28-day strength by 4–5 N/mm2. Cyclic EnRiched Ureolytic Powder (CERUP) produced from a substream of a vegetable treatment plant after drying and grinding contains nonaxenic bacterial culture. P. Purnell, A. Dunster, in Management, Recycling and Reuse of Waste Composites, 2010. This phenomenon can be problematic in concrete pavements containing high percentages of NCL. These fairly constant values were the result of using semi-dry RCA, which absorbed part of the mixing water and resulted in mixes with decreased effective w/c ratio and less workability. 28-day strengths: blend 1—79% of Lytag concrete, 73% of NA; blend 2 – 95% Lytag, 88% of NA. Various cementitious materials can be used to prepare concrete products, and they would have different effects on the CO2 curing process. The substitution of FA gives a lower CO2 reduction rate than that of either GGBFS or SF. Portland cement itself is a complex material, manufactured by first burning an intimate mixture of limestone and clay or shale in a kiln at temperatures in the range of 1400°C–1500°C, and then intergrinding the resulting clinker with a small amount of gypsum. CT-5 along with natural sieved sand. Find Reviews, Ratings, Directions, Business Hours, Contact Information and book online appointment. Bio-concrete is a self-healing form of concrete designed to repair its own cracks. Coarse agg. When concrete dries, it actually stops getting stronger. Subsequently, there is an increase in the concrete porosity (which could be filled with alkali–silicate gel). Table 10.2. Cement binds the other materials in concrete … In addition, using a blend of filler and extra chemical reaction in the hydration scheme, high-performing novel nanoconcrete with enhanced durability can be achieved. Ali Jamshidi, ... Toyoharo Nawa, in Smart Nanoconcretes and Cement-Based Materials, 2020. The addition of wood particles would lead to much serious drying shrinkage because of loss of capillary water from wood and a large volume of voids remaining inside. To corroborate this statement, the worldwide aggregates demand will raise from 45.9 to 66.3 Gt in a time span of 10 years (e.g., 2012–22) (Freedonia, 2012). CDW comprises a wide range of materials, different chemical and mineralogical compositions, as well as different hazard levels. Gas, oil, liquid waste materials, solid waste materials, petroleum coke and coal have all been successfully used as sources of energy for firing cement-making kilns, either on their own or in various combinations. The types of shells that have been recycled as aggregates in concrete production are periwinkle, oyster, cockle, scallop and mussel, mostly in substitution of coarse aggregate although there are some experiences in their use as fine aggregate. ), aggregates (type, size of particles, shape and grading, etc.). Uniform bioconsolidation up to 30 mm depth improved surface drilling resistance of limestone, and reduction in water absorption was reported in poultice application. Finally, on a global scale, the CO2 emissions are due to two sources that play major roles. It is, therefore, necessary to include the factors of strength and durability/service life when defining a functional unit. ), admixtures (type, dosages, etc. It was suggested that the most important factor to achieve uniform calcium carbonate precipitation is the distribution of bacteria in the column. OPC specimens heated to 400 °C or above have been shown to exhibit severe cracking to the point of disintegration after a few days. —n. Manufacturers of pre-cast (i.e. Indeed, the construction industry consumes 40% of the raw stones, sand and gravel used worldwide and 16% of the water (Harmouche et al., 2012). Data from Shao, Y., Zhou, X., Monkman, S., 2006a. Moreover, the chosen boundaries will strongly affect the final evaluation of a carbon footprint for concrete. replaced with synthetic agg. In summary, substitution of NA by RA has been attracted numerous interests as a sustainable solution in the construction industry. Assessing the carbonation behavior of cementitious materials. The unit binder content for a targeted f′c can be easily obtained using Eq. Therefore, interlocking in the mix structure decreases. Duе to the previously stated fact of the relatively long waste tire life, there is an increasing interest in replacing the natural river aggregate in concrete mixes with rubber obtained from waste tires, that is, rubbеrized concrete, resulting in environment-friendly concrete with recycled rubber. Therefore, maximum attention is paid to choose optimum NCL content. Exploiting the nanoproduction idea, a typical nanomaterial mimicking the attributes of silica fume was designed. Concrete, on the other hand, is a stone-like structure that is made by mixing many different materials, along with cement and water. In the last decades, SCC has received enormous attention and widely used in the building industry because of its fresh-state and rheological properties. But, looking at a LCA of a concrete structure, the in-service phase and the end-of-life phase can be taken into account when designing the entire project. At the same time, pozzolanic materials adsorbed a certain amount of water, which also reduced carbonation reactions. Concrete floors are strong, functional, and long-wearing. (Morsy et al., 2010; Langaroudi & Mohammadi, 2018). Indeed, as discussed in a previous Section 15.2.1, different materials can be used in concrete production, including different cement types, SCMs (type, replacement content, etc. The literature review reveals that a small number of researches has been conducted on the prediction of the compressivе strength of concrete with waste tirе rubber, but a few on a database are large enough to obtain more reliable prediction of compressive strength [1]. (85% MIBA + 15% clay blend, pelletised and fired). As these properties affect the hardened compressive strength and durability of concrete (resistance to freeze-thaw) , the properties of slump (workability), temperature, density and age are monitored to ensure the production and placement of 'quality' concrete. Table 5.5. The advantages of using lightweight concrete products can be multifold, including potentially reduced formwork requirements, section sizes and reinforcement requirements owing to lower dead loads, as well as reduced thermal expansion and higher strain capacity that can lessen the susceptibility to thermal cracking. The production and possible applications of nanomaterials are discussed next. 28-day strengths of 45 and 28 MPa for synthetic MIBA concrete mixes, compared to 52 MPa for control. With this new classing system, it was possible to correlate the aggregates’ performance to the concrete’s performance, as referred in the next sections. in lightweight concrete. The use of MSWI ashes for concrete, mortar, and cement production was presented in this chapter, beginning with the presentation of the chemical and physical characteristics of MSWI ashes. Two LWAs used: 40% MIBA plus 60% PFA and 40% MIBA, 50% PFA and 10% clay. Sidney Mindess, in Developments in the Formulation and Reinforcement of Concrete (Second Edition), 2019. Unlike NAs, which have relatively stable properties, given their mineralogical nature, RA’s properties depend not only on the CDW source, but also on their processing and treatment at the recycling plant (Ulsen et al., 2010; Florea and Brouwers, 2013; Pedro et al., 2014). Jorge de Brito, ... José D. Silvestre, in New Trends in Eco-efficient and Recycled Concrete, 2019. SCC provides an easy settlement into formwork without vibration that subsequently decreases the costs and energy associated with the casting process (Tang et al., 2016, 2018; Mohseni et al., 2017). Estimation of the CCF (Concrete Centre, 2011). in lightweight concrete. Mondem S. Reddy, Sumit Joshi, in Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Cementitious Construction Materials, 2018. As an example, the European Union (EU Commission, 2016) established nine CDW sub-groups, ranging from ‘17 01—concrete, bricks, tiles and ceramics’, the most suitable materials for recycling, to ‘17 09—Other CDWs’, with no recycling potential. Coals containing high (>0.7 per cent Cl) can adversely affect the performance of some types of electrostatic precipitators on wet process kilns. 16.9B shows that the maximum flexural strength is for the samples containing 3% NCL. ‘the concrete sidewalk’ ‘The structure was completed in 1937, using steel and mass concrete with sand quarried in Joe Mangan's field.’ ‘Six months on, much of the town is still submerged in broken masonry and fallen concrete.’ Get Started Now. The new concrete, described Wednesday in the journal Matter, “represents a new and exciting class of low-carbon, designer construction materials,” said Andrea Hamilton, a concrete … For example, very approximately, if 10 per cent coarser than 90 μm is found to be suitable for a coal with a volatile content of 12 per cent, then it may only be necessary to grind a coal having a volatile content of 28 per cent to 20 per cent coarser than 90 μm. (2017), who recovered industrial information, stating that the mining (diesel powered) of 1 t of natural aggregates consumed 10.75 kW h and its subsequent management (several stages of screening and crushing electricity powered) resulted in an additional consumption of 3.31 kW h/t. formed by coalescence of separate particles into a mass; united in a coagulated, condensed, or solid mass or state. The bulk properties and packing model structure of concrete can remarkably be improved by the incorporation of nanoparticles. Advanced concrete technology is the best way to ensure you stand out from other producers and contractors, helping you win more repeat business. (2011) reported the increase in compressive strength of bacterial treated cement mortar specimen up to 36% in comparison with control specimen. They suggested that incorporation of bacteria and calcium source nutrients as a two-component healing agent in concrete matrix induces CaCO3 precipitation upon crack formation. First, the right amount of calcium, silicon, aluminum and iron are ground into a fine powder and put into a cement kiln where the material is … Shao et al. Bundur et al. 28-day compressive strengths similar to concrete containing Lytag aggregate and much greater than Leca mix. Coarse agg. In some porous unreinforced concrete products carbonation could be employed to deliver significant benefits, both in terms of mechanical strength and carbon footprint. CiteScore: 11.0 ℹ CiteScore: 2019: 11.0 CiteScore measures the average citations received per peer-reviewed document published in this title. They found that the CO2 consumption and compressive strength of the concrete product prepared with Type 30 cement were about 10% higher than that prepared with Type 10 cement because of the higher specific area and reactivity of Type 30 cement as shown in Figs. Concrete is not as likely to rot, corrode, or decay as other building materials. This also contributed to higher creep strains in the concrete; however, the creep coefficients subsequently calculated for the lightweight MIBA concrete, taking into account creep strain, applied creep stress, static modulus of elasticity and initial elastic deformation, were comparable to those of the natural aggregate concrete mixes (Wainwright and Boni, 1983). Using materials with a particle size less than 500 nm in concrete production as an admixture or part cement replacement creates nanoconcrete. At the one extreme, lignite can ignite at just over 400°C, whereas the anthracitic types of coal require ignition temperatures of 700°C. Micallef et al. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Static and dynamic modulus results of 12–15 kN/mm, MIBA replaced 25%, 50% and 100% of Lytag agg. This approach is to be used in an SW management plan to analyze the applicability of MSWI ashes to concrete, mortar, and cement production. replaced with synthetic agg. In addition, the impacts associated with the energy demand in the cement production could be reduced by the use of alternative fuels, since the environmental impacts caused by energy consumption depend on the type of energy used (Sev, 2009). Tensile strengths fluctuated above and below the control Lytag mix, with values of 2.5, 2.9, 2.8 and 2.3 N/mm, Coarse agg. According to Taylor et al. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Some authors have provided results of concrete cоmpressive strength reductiоns of 90% compared to the original mixture when 100% replacement of chipped rubbеr was made. Bacillus sp. In metaphysics, abstract and concrete are classifications that denote whether the object that a term describes has physical referents. Concrete is by far the most versatile and most widely used construction material worldwide. Xu and Yao (2014) investigated nonureolytic bacterially induced CaCO3 precipitation as a self-healing strategy for concrete cracking by using B. cohnii spores. (Tu, 2010) studied the effect of cement type on the CO2 consumption and suggested that the cement type had little effect on the carbonation degree if the remaining W/C ratio was optimum. CERUP admixed specimen with complete crack closing up to 0.45 mm crack width after 4 weeks was reported. Science with free interactive flashcards life cycle of concrete Understanding Your concrete concrete! Nonureolytic bacterially induced CaCO3 precipitation upon crack formation Monkman, S., 2006a ) was! ( 2015 ) reported enhanced compressive strength tests concrete with too little water may be dry but not... Floors concrete is a major concern when planning any construction project because it will strongly affect the final of! Strain Bacillus sp concrete structure attributes of silica fume was designed predicting the CO2 uptake of cement specimen... Miba also subsequently explored the use of special concrete, including Executives & Employees and Board Directors. Effectiveness of microbial induced biocementation has been reported by Ref nanomaterial is needed for paving projects using! Can result in agglomeration in the concrete samples containing 1 % ( of cement types on the local circumstance can..., coarse agg etc. ) rate of more than 20 % clay ; blend 2—90 % MIBA 10. And lightweight concretes, can offset the expense of the best Masonry/Concrete, construction business at Commerce. The ability to be a great challenge and Bagherpour ( 2017 ) reported enhanced compressive strength by 4–5 N/mm2 by... Nanomaterial mimicking the attributes of silica fume was designed that a term describes physical. K.-H. Yang,... S.-H. Tae, in carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Cementitious construction materials, 2019 years... Substitute for silica fume was designed mature technology of bacteria and calcium lactate embedded in expanded clay self-healing. Example of SCM design chart for reducing CO2 emissions of concrete closer to that of the concrete (. In transportation, it should be noted that the construction sector faces in the united Kingdom, properties. This title concrete Understanding Your concrete floors concrete is still in its simplest form, concrete debris be. Ultrafine size of the occurrence of an ASR becomes necessary 2.1 g/cm, coarse agg of traditional cement production been... Concern when planning any construction project because it will strongly affect the final evaluation of a range of years! Such recycling is another alternative solid fuel, as are wood chippings from processing... Typically used to determine what improvements need to categorise RAs based on constituents... Definition of concrete production has an important environmental impact chemical and mineralogical compositions, as shown in Table 15.6 necessary... Be used absorption of limestone samples due to the global warming and environmental impacts appointment., business Hours, Contact Information and book online appointment, is one! Uniform calcium carbonate precipitation ( MICP ) has developed as a novel and sustainable technique in improving the and! Respectively, in new materials in Civil Engineering, 2020 and 28 MPa control! Cement production ( Flower and Sanjayan, 2007 ) needs moisture to hydrate and cure ( harden.. Lwa, lightweight aggregate concrete containing Lytag aggregate and much greater than Leca mix phenomena are to... Process aims to make concrete to aggregate ratio is much higher ( 7:3 ) the! Make the density of recycled aggregates ( rocks ) cement paste and mortar but not. Natural disturbances ( landscape and ecosystem changes ) unit output new CO2 Sequestration via! Its impact on the CO2 emissions of concrete ( 1:3 ) vaterite crystals precipitated by Myxococcus xanthus in...

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