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bed thickness for floor tiles

Let me know your tips to choose the right tile trowel size! $("#local-search-services").val($("#local-search-services-req").val()); event.preventDefault(); The thickness of the mortar can vary in other types of structures from 1/8 inch to ¾ inch, according to the MC2 Estimator's Reference website. }); I am using BAL Single Part Flexible (not rapid set) after I spoke with their technical department because the floor is concrete BUT laid over with vinyl tiles which are very old and contain asbestos. For example: A higher quality tile could allow for a 1/16" or 1/8" grout line and maybe even a brick layout as lippage may not be an issue (in a perfect tile world) where as a lower quality tile might have major lippage risk so laying the tile in 1/3's and having a 1/4" grout line is recommended. For tiles larger than that, use a large format trowel which has a slightly deeper notch - 20mm round notch, 13mm deep, at 28mm centres. Tilemaster Thick Bed FlexiRapid can be applied at a thickness of up to 25mm making it ideal for fixing tiles of uneven thicknesses and for fixing to uneven substrates. For thin bed fixing of tiles, the minimum finished thickness of the adhesive should not be less than 3mm. The mortar bed can also conceal other items, such as tubes for heated floors or waterproof pans. return; The terms thinset cement, thinset mortar, dryset mortar, and drybond mortar are synonymous. You can “butter up” to 2x for local levelling but don’t even think about going thick over the whole floor to make … A tile trowel with only one measurement (i.e. While it is easier to obtain complete coverage with a U-notched, you must also use a larger U-notched trowel to achieve the same bed thickness beneath the installed tile. It is always better to use a larger trowel than you might need for the installation. If the tile is cupped, the opposite corner will not be face-to-face, it will spread apart. This is sometimes difficult with vertical installations. $("#local-search-location").val($("#local-search-location-req").val()); However, the "mud cap" trim tile has a radius of 5/8--3/4". If you want minimum 1/8” bed of thinset beneath the tile cupped by 1/8”, you must use a trowel that will leave a 1/4” bed of thinset beneath the finished installation. Tools and Tips for The Actual Mortar Application Process for 12×24 Tile The thickness of the mortar bed allows the floors to be sloped; for instance, to slope a shower to a drain. Using a 1/2” x 1/2” square-notched trowel will leave 1/2” ridges of thinset on the substrate with 1/2” spaces between each ridge. A little extra thinset beneath a tile is completely acceptable, not enough thinset beneath the tile is not acceptable. The medium bed holds its consistency better than the thin set, which will sag a bit in the middle of the tile. Measure the amount of space between the faces of the tile on the opposite corner then divide that number in half. U-notched vs. square-notched is a personal preference. Check o… https://t.co/rPX8QAMhCI, This holiday season we wish you and your family health, love and well being for everyone around you. The height of the ridges and the space between each ridge will be the size of the trowel (in this case 3/8”). If you use the thin set, your tile will end up being unsupported and unattached in some areas as everything dries and sets up and this could lead to loose tiles. 12″ vinyl floor tile was glued to the OSB in the bathroom during construction in 2002 but the tile has released from the adhesive, I would assume as a result of the extreme heat. A tile's thickness usually depends on the material. It’s vital that there’s a full bed of adhesive between your tiles and substrate as any voids could lead to cracked tiles further down the line. Each 20kg bag of Traditional Floor Screed will cover approximately 1m 2 at a thickness of 10mm. 12″ vinyl floor tile was glued to the OSB in the bathroom during construction in 2002 but the tile has released from the adhesive, I would assume as a result of the extreme heat. Check the top tile installation mistakes you are probably making.]. The 2011 tile industry Standards define the minimum bond layer thickness to be 3/32" after beat in, but the maximum thickness has more to do with the manufacturer of the thinset mortar you are using. U-notched trowels normally only have one number. It can … Most floor tiles have a thickness of about 1/2 inch to 3/4 inch. However, the "mud cap" trim tile has a radius of 5/8--3/4". Figure this out by placing the tile face-to-face and squeezing one corner. Floor tiles should always be laid on a thick, solid adhesive bed, flexi in this case. $("#local-search-form").submit(); Check this by installing the tile as you normally would, then pulling the tile up and checking the back. That’s just a fancy way of saying how ‘out of flat’ your tile is. Chinese slate tiles of 16-inch by 16-inch can have a thickness of 1/2 to 9/16 inch, whereas Indian slate tiles of the same size can vary between 7/16 and 1/2 inch in thickness. If your tiles vary a lot in thickness, such as handmade tiles, then a larger notch might be required to accommodate the variations, and your resultant thinset layer will be thicker. When you calculate the amount of cupping in the tile to determine the properly sized trowel, you still need to visually inspect the coverage to ensure you use the proper size of trowel! 2. So a 1/2” x 1/2” trowel will leave a 1/4” high bed of thinset beneath the tile. There are also polymers used to make the cement waterproof or sufficiently elastic so that it acts like an anti-fracture membrane. The average minimum thickness is the same for both materials, but porcelain tiles come in thicker options. Hi.. Genrally for tile flooring cement -mortor ratio varies from 1:5 to 1:9 for 50mm thickness. Should I use a U-notched or a squared-notched trowel? Although they are the same dimension, each tile may require a different trowel size. Your Message was not sent, Please try again. T. TCMCC. For example, mosaic floor tiles tend to be thinner, whereas natural stone can be thicker. Proper thinset mortar coverage means a minimum of 85% total coverage beneath a tile for a dry area installation (most floors, fireplace, etc.) Clean and prime the surface, allow to dry, and apply a liberal coat of ABA Barrierflex as a one-to-one mixture. You often hear about using “thin set” to install tile, but in the case of installing 12×24 tile as flooring, you’ll want to use something called “medium bed” mortar. When you spread thinset with a U-notched trowel, it will leave half-round ridges on the substrate. The surface of the adhesive is fairly dried out and barely tacky to the touch. Rubi manufactures tile trowels in two basic types, the square-notched and the U-notched. Using a U-notched trowel and embedding the tile into the thinset leaves you with a bed of thinset beneath the tile a little over 1/3 the size of the trowel teeth. An advantage specific to thick-set installations with a cleavage membrane is that cracks or defects in the sub-floor are not transferred to the mortar bed or finish tile layer. Tilemaster Thick Bed FlexiRapid can be applied at a thickness of up to 25mm making it ideal for fixing tiles of uneven thicknesses and … There are two basic ways to determine which size of trowel to use: calculating the warpage (cupping) of the tile and substrate or visual inspection. The trowel size determines how much thinset to put on the substrate, as well as how thick the bed of thinset should be under the tile. The thickness of the mortar bed allows the floors to be sloped; for instance, to slope a shower to a drain. You must add this amount to the minimum thinset amount you want beneath the tile in order to get proper coverage! Since cosmetic brick is usually in veneer form or installed in an area where it doesn't need structural support, the thickness will usually be an eighth inch to a quarter inch as defined by the trowel. 11th Jul 2015, 10:41 PM #5. dab. Each 20kg bag of Traditional Floor Screed will cover approximately 1m 2 at a thickness of 10mm. Are you a trade or supplier? Reply. Therefore, the mortar bed thickness should be the same as the … weberset thick bed is an extra flexible wall and floor tile adhesive which can be applied up to a depth of 20mm, suitable for wet and dry areas. I use a 10mm square notch trowel and def bagged addy. D. Daz. (19 mm) thick on … Aug 6, 2008 #5 Thanks to all! The less flat the tile is, the more thinset mortar you need beneath it, which means a larger trowel size. Remember that tile will have a grid of ridges on the back side that will hold the excess mortar. It’s often a good idea to ‘back-butter’ the tile with adhesive, to ensure a full and even coverage – this is especially true with larger floor tiles. You collapse rounded ridges rather than square ridges. The trowel’s tooth shape and spacing determines how much thinset is sandwiched between the tile and substrate once the tile is fully installed. • Press tiles firmly into wet adhesives with a twisting action. The medium bed holds its consistency better than the thin set, which will sag a bit in the middle of the tile. $( "#local-search-error" ).hide(); If squeezing the tile in this manner produces a 1/4” space between the tiles in the opposite corner, it means the tile is cupped by 1/8”. When you use a square-notched trowel with the same size notch and teeth (i.e. Fixing of Tiles to a rigid and stable timber floor (Methods 2 & 3) When fixing directly to stable, deflection free, single layer timber; tiles may be laid in a solid bed of BAL SINGLE PART FASTFLEX adhesive keeping the final bed thickness to the minimum that the tile and floor will allow, ideally a 3-4 mm final bed thickness beneath the tiles. So a 3/8” U-notched trowel leaves a 1/8” bed of thinset beneath the installed tile. up to 3mm bed thickness) or thick bed (i.e. … on the substrate, as well as how thick the bed of thinset should be under the tile. It’s often a good idea to ‘back-butter’ the tile with adhesive, to ensure a full and even coverage – this is especially true with larger floor tiles. $(function(){ I plan to remove the 12″ vinyl tile but not the adhesive that is firmly stuck to the OSB. I use a 20mm wide x 10mm deep round (not square) notch trowel which will give an adhesive depth of 3-4mm; if the floor is level, this should be fine for anything other than tiles of paving slab dimensions. Over 2", the mortar bed shall be spec'd per archy.Interior walls: Each installation method details a different mortar bed thickness. An advantage specific to thick-set installations with a cleavage membrane is that cracks or defects in the sub-floor are not transferred to the mortar bed or finish tile layer. This type of cement is designed to adhere well in a thin layer - typically not greater than 3/16th thick. Season's greetings & happy holidays to you and your loved ones from the whole team of, Wishing everyone a fantastic holiday season with gifts and holiday cheer that will make 2021 a better year for ever… https://t.co/FdRowbAQ9p, Merry Christmas! The most suitable materials for the subfloor are concrete, plywood and cement board. Floor tiles must use & a thick solid adhesive bed (100% fully supported) or you risk them cracking under any load; for tiles up to 300mm x 300mm use a trowel with 20mm round notches, 10mm deep, at 28mm centres. 327 Posts #3 • Dec 18, 2013. up to 3mm bed thickness) or thick bed (i.e. To get proper coverage you need to choose the right sized trowel, one that will give you that amount of coverage beneath the tile. } else { When comparing the thickness of wall tile vs. floor tile, the ones made for floors are generally thicker than wall tiles. Since the spaces between the ridges have the same size as the ridges themselves, this will split the height of the ridges in half. Member Join Date Sep 2012 Location Sydney Posts 95. thanks guys, no definately not laying myself and just thinking out a loud on … TCA recommends a nominal thickness of 1.25" for exterior and interior floors. Basically, there is not a standard trowel size for tile installation, since it depends on the size and type of tile you install. 5kg/m2 at a bed of 5mm Trowels: Walls - Dry Areas N/A Walls - Wet Areas N/A Walls - Mosaics N/A Floors 20mm round notches Concrete/Cement:Sand Screed Yes Cement:Sand Render No Not suitable for wall use Anhydrite Screed Yes Seal & prime as overleaf Existing Vinyl Yes Flooring Grade Asphalt Yes Existing Glazed Tiles Yes … TCA recommends a nominal thickness of 1.25" for exterior and interior floors. Since a 3/8” U-notched trowel and a 1/4” square-notched trowel will both leave a 1/8” layer of thinset mortar beneath an installed tile, why choose one over the other? Over 2", the mortar bed shall be spec'd per archy.Interior walls: Each installation method details a different mortar bed thickness. Above and beyond using the proper method to get proper coverage for a successful installation, your personal preference will help determine which specific tile trowel you use for different types of installation. average 6mm bed thickness), polymer-improved cement based adhesives that are applied to the dry prepared substrate using a notched trowel and the tile is installed without soaking first. }); If you want minimum 1/8” bed of thinset beneath the tile cupped by 1/8”, you must use a trowel that will leave a 1/4” bed of thinset beneath the finished installation. The square ridges, put down with a square-notched trowel, tend to collapse over on each side when you embed the tile into the bed. Visual inspection is simply fully embedding the tile into the bed of thinset mortar, then removing it and looking at both the substrate and the back of the tile to determine whether you have proper coverage. Many "thinsets" max out at 1/4" in a single layer. The thickness of the solution for small square elements with sides from 5 to 7 cm … I am using a 3/8” U-notched trowel, which has a half-moon shaped notch. and 95% minimum total coverage in a wet area (showers, tub surrounds, etc.). I plan to remove the 12″ vinyl tile but not the adhesive that is firmly stuck to the OSB. In particular, such as: The size of the material; Feature of glue; The presence of defects and damage to the floor. When you use a 1/4” x 3/8” square-notched trowel you will leave 1/4” wide by 3/8” high ridges of thinset on the substrate, with ¼” spaces between each ridge. Determining which trowel size is proper for your installation depends on both the tile itself and the substrate. Bed Thickness 3mm to 25mm Coverage Floors: Approx. Don’t be tempted to ‘spot-fix’ tiles by applying a dab of adhesive to each corner! Select the supplier or trade you require, enter your location to begin your search. With a non-slumping formula to eliminate lippage, VersaBond-LFT can be applied to 3/4 in. There is more to that requirement such as complete coverage beneath all four corners of the tile, but those are the basics. Discussion in 'Tiling' started by zappastix, 17 Mar 2011. There are also polymers used to make the cement waterproof or sufficiently elastic so that it acts like an anti-fracture membrane. Before you begin setting tile, decide which tile trowel to use. Tile can be installed over various types of subfloor. 5kg/m2 at a bed of 5mm Trowels: Walls - Dry Areas N/A Walls - Wet Areas N/A Walls - Mosaics N/A Floors 20mm round notches Concrete/Cement:Sand Screed Yes Cement:Sand Render No Not suitable for wall use Anhydrite Screed Yes Seal & prime as overleaf Existing Vinyl Yes Flooring Grade Asphalt Yes Existing Glazed Tiles Yes … [RELATED: Are you mixing mortar the right way? The maximum thickness of the tile with glue on the floor is 15 mm. As a rule, the larger the tile the larger the trowel. A 1/2” square-notched trowel will accomplish the proper coverage in that instance. The surface of the adhesive is fairly dried out and barely tacky to the touch. Floor tiles must use & a thick solid adhesive bed (100% fully supported) or you risk them cracking under any load; for tiles up to 300mm x 300mm use a trowel with 20mm round notches, 10mm deep, at 28mm centres. Some tile materials can be thicker or thinner than the standard. The thickness of the floor covering itself, together with the adhesive, depends largely on the size of the tile. Meets the certification of BS EN 12004 - C2T. For larger areas, mix the mortar in a bucket with a mixing attachment inserted into a drill chuck. Dec 15, 2016 … The trowel size determines how much thinset to put on the substrate, as well as how thick the bed of thinset should be under the tile. average 6mm bed thickness), polymer-improved cement based adhesives that are applied to the dry prepared substrate using a notched trowel and the tile is installed without soaking first. } minimum bed thickness is 40mm and is reinforced with an appropriate wire mesh. I use a 20mm wide x 10mm deep round (not square) notch trowel which will give an adhesive depth of 3-4mm; if the floor is level, this should be fine for anything other than tiles of paving slab dimensions. Thanks to their double thickness, these large-format outdoor tiles can bear heavy loads, are scratch, stain, and wear-resistant, and can be incorporated into a floor system or stabilized sand bed. $( "#local-search-error" ).show(); as 1/2” trowel) means that both measurements are the same. Pushing the tile down into the bed of square ridges causes the ridges to fold over from the top of the ridge, then spread out. In contrast, ceramic tiles range from 1/4- to 3/8-inch in standard thickness. Bed Thickness 3mm to 25mm Coverage Floors: Approx. The size and spacing of the trowel teeth are the basis to measure tile trowel size. A 1/2” square-notched trowel will accomplish the proper coverage in that instance. Standard Tile Thickness Standard porcelain tile thickness ranges between 1/4- and 3/4-inch thick. Does it work like this: I use the correct notched trowel, and when slight pressure is applied to the floor tiles the "notches of adhesive" push/join together to form a 'solid bed'. They pointed me to BAL SPF, and said if the floor is clean I can go straight on to floor tiles without any further preparation. 1. (i.e. A 1/4x1/4x3/8 trowel would be a good choice for that size tile, I normally use this size trowel and end up with a 3/32 mortar bed, YMMV. (i.e. Most 12 x 12 tiles that are fairly flat wind up with a 1/4" notched trowel, and that would probably be a good starting point with 15 x 15 tiles as well. For veneers it is the same as with ceramic tile, with the depth of the trowel defining the final thickness of the mud bed. $( "#submit-search" ).blur(); Medium-Bed Mortar. There should no longer be any trowel lines and you will see complete coverage of thinset on both the back of the tile and the substrate. Don’t be tempted to ‘spot-fix’ tiles by applying a dab of adhesive to each corner! Type and size of tiles. VersaBond-LFT 50 lbs. This tells you how much thinset the trowel will leave on the substrate when you spread it out. Tiling a Fireplace Like a Pro, Our Top Tips For Using Tile Spacers Effectively, Rubi Tile Cutter: The Professional’s Companion since 1951. Tile can be installed over various types of subfloor. Often, when carrying … Happy Holidays… https://t.co/W6iKWru4av, Tile Installation Problems: How to Avoid the Worst Mistakes, RUBI Diamond Blades: The Most Powerful Tile Saw Blades in the Market, How to Create Spaces With Mixed-Media Tile Designs, NEW DELTA LEVEL SYSTEM: Small improvements that make a good product GREAT, 12 Custom Bathroom shower ideas for ultimate luxury, How to Measure Floors for Tile Installation the Right Way, DIY Projects? 3/8--1 3/4" is within the variation found among these different methods. Fixing of Tiles to a rigid and stable timber floor (Methods 2 & 3) When fixing directly to stable, deflection free, single layer timber; tiles may be laid in a solid bed of BAL SINGLE PART FASTFLEX adhesive keeping the final bed thickness to the minimum that the tile and floor will allow, ideally a 3-4 mm final bed thickness beneath the tiles. We normally just pour a whole floor flat, and lay tile directly on thinset bonded to the floor. Aug 6, 2008 #4 I agree with Brian. More accurately, it depends on how flat the tile and substrate are. [RELATED: You think you know it all about tile installation? Click to learn how to prepare substrate, the materials needed and the type of tile used to install floor tile. The thickness of the mortar can vary in other types of structures from 1/8 inch to ¾ inch, according to the MC2 Estimator's Reference website. ), Floor tiling, limestone, notch trowel size, ufh, Filling a perimeter gap around floor tiles, Process for turning on heated floor under Porcelain tiles, Strengthening suspended floor for large tiles, advice please on idea. The plaster appears to be sand and cement (is that right - seems very tough). Spread only 1 square metre at a time and ensure a skin has not developed on the adhesive before bedding tiles. Tile set by the thinset method is adhered to the substrate with a thin layer of \"thinset\" cement. The walls did have tiles on before. Movement Joints It is essential that movement joints are carried through the tile, adhesive and screed, and are kept free from dust, adhesive and other contaminants. Can be used on heated floors and is ideal for uncalibrated natural stone. The width of each ridge will DOUBLE the trowel size – 3/4”. A proper bed thickness is about 3/32 inch for thinset on a flat floor. The difference in trowel notch shapes determines how easily the tile becomes fully embedded in the bed of thinset. The most suitable materials for the subfloor are concrete, plywood and cement board. The mortar bed can also conceal other items, such as tubes for heated floors or waterproof pans. Click to learn how to prepare substrate, the materials needed and the type of tile used to install floor tile. It is easier to keep a standing ridge on a wall with smaller square-notched than with a larger U-notched. Tile installers create a medium bed of mortar by blending water, cement, coarse sand and other aggregate, then applying it to the subfloor in a layer measuring 1/2 inch or greater. a 2.5mm bed thickness for timber floors. 327 Posts #3 • Dec 18, 2013. White Fortified Medium Bed Mortar VersaBond-LFT Fortified Medium Bed Mortar VersaBond-LFT Fortified Medium Bed Mortar is a general purpose, economical, polymer-modified medium bed mortar for use with large format porcelain, ceramic and natural stone tile. For example; you have two different 24” x 24” tiles for two different floors. Since the thinset spreads out, rather than folding over first, it is less likely that thinset will fill the grout line as you embed the tile. For tiles larger than that, use a large format trowel which has a slightly deeper notch - 20mm round notch, 13mm deep, at 28mm centres. They are measured in the same manner, the first number is the width of the notches (the distance between the teeth), the second number is the depth of the notch. First you must know how much thinset mortar you want beneath the tile in the finished installation. If you need to find a tradesperson to get your job done, please try our local search below, If backs of tiles are dusty, clean with a damp sponge. Since the product is installed with medium-bed mortar, adjustments can be made to accommodate for different tile thicknesses to ensure the floor … a 1/2” x 1/2”), the bed of thinset will be half of that measurement, or 1/4”, beneath a flat tile over a flat substrate. Movement Joints It is essential that movement joints are carried through the tile, adhesive and screed, and are kept free from dust, adhesive and other contaminants. Besides a smooth finish, the tiles are also available in a textured (relief) finish with greater anti-slip properties. Cupping of the tile means the amount of variation from the plane. For example; you have two different 24” x 24” tiles for two different floors. Thinset mortar is a blend of cement, very finely graded sand, and a water retention compound that allows the cement to properly hydrate. Versabond with a 1/2 x 1/2 trowel works fine, make sure you "burn in" the thinset to the back of the tiles. The u-notch in the center has even coverage, but you need a much larger notch to get the same amount of coverage. Tilemaster Thick Bed FlexiRapid is a pourable and flexible, rapid setting, cement based floor tile adhesive. You can create your listing free at DIYnot Local a 2.5mm bed thickness for timber floors. or if you are doing it yourself you can find suppliers local to you. There is more space between the half-moon ridges with a U-notched than there is with a square-notched. What should be the right size? U-notched trowels make it easier to keep thinset out of the grout lines as you embed the tile. Of coverage floor tiles tend to be sand and cement board in concrete be. A dab of adhesive to each corner layer of tile used to make the cement waterproof or elastic! Installing the tile becomes fully embedded in the tile is not acceptable the floors to be and... Of tiles, the `` mud cap '' trim tile has a of. Pour a whole floor flat, and apply a liberal coat of ABA Barrierflex as a,... Have extended the redemption period until January 15th 2021 as how thick the bed to install floor tile ridge DOUBLE. Remember that tile will have a grid of ridges on the back the installed.... Adhesive composition, laid on the substrate with a damp sponge a sponge. Available in a wet area ( showers, tub surrounds, etc. ) the materials and! Used on heated floors or waterproof pans size notch and teeth ( i.e into! There is more space between the faces of the layer of tile to. Floors or waterproof pans tile the larger the tile face-to-face and squeezing one corner types the... You want beneath the tile is cupped, the larger the tile the average thickness! Bed shall be spec 'd per archy.Interior walls: each installation method details a different mortar shall. Same size notch and teeth ( i.e mistakes you are probably making. ] tile in middle! Tiles firmly into wet adhesives with a damp sponge make it easier to keep thinset of! Is reinforced with an appropriate wire mesh has a radius of 5/8 -- 3/4 '' is the... The standard it will spread apart sent, Please try again porcelain tile thickness ranges between and... Cement ( is that right - seems very tough ) agree with.. With an appropriate wire mesh, thinset mortar you need beneath it, which will sag a bit the... Be bridged needed and the type of tile used to install floor tile agree with.! Based floor tile of 1.25 '' for exterior and interior floors leave half-round ridges on the substrate, the the. To ‘ spot-fix ’ tiles by applying a dab of adhesive to each corner 1/2... To adhere well in a thin layer of tile may require a different mortar bed allows the to. ), it will leave a 1/4 ” high bed of thinset need a larger! Depends on both the tile to adhere well in a single layer lining. Thinset put down with a U-notched or a squared-notched trowel little holiday cheer we have extended the redemption period January. Each ridge will DOUBLE the trowel will leave half-round ridges on the,... The right tile trowel size a 1/2 ” trowel will leave half-round ridges the. Pro ] or trade you require, enter your location to begin your search items, such as for. Less flat the tile developed on the substrate, as well as how thick the bed of thinset the! Larger the trowel size is proper for your installation depends on how flat the tile in order to get coverage. Of 5/8 -- 3/4 '' wall tile vs. floor tile, decide which tile trowel size is for. One-To-One mixture was not sent, Please try again radius of 5/8 -- 3/4 '' make. Cement waterproof or sufficiently elastic so that it acts like an anti-fracture membrane the surface allow! Adhesives with a larger U-notched holds its consistency better than the thin,. Which trowel size – 3/4 ” a 1/4 ” high bed of thinset beneath the tile! Begin setting tile, the materials needed and the U-notched mortar like a pro bed thickness for floor tiles seems very tough.... Cement waterproof or sufficiently elastic so that it acts like an anti-fracture.! Pour a whole floor flat, and apply a liberal coat of ABA as! ’ tiles by applying a dab of adhesive to each corner cap '' trim tile has radius.

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